Commo­tion is a free, open-source com­mu­ni­ca­tion tool that uses wire­less devices to cre­ate decen­tral­ized mesh net­works. Com­mo­tion pro­vides a way for you to share your Inter­net con­nec­tion with the peo­ple around you, but it is not a replace­ment for your Inter­net connection.Wireless mesh net­works allow devices to con­nect direct­ly to each oth­er with­out going through a cen­tral­ized point. Mesh net­works are self-heal­ing and can grow organ­i­cal­ly. They also allow for easy shar­ing of ser­vices over the net­work, such as Inter­net and appli­ca­tions.

DNS is like the phone­book of the Inter­net. When you type in, your com­put­er asks a dig­i­tal phone­book on the Inter­net (called a DNS serv­er) what the address means, and gets back a series of num­bers like The prob­lem is that these DNS servers are con­trolled by gov­ern­ments and large cor­po­ra­tions, and could abuse their pow­er to cen­sor, hijack, or spy on your Inter­net usage. This hap­pens on a reg­u­lar basis across the world, includ­ing in coun­tries like Chi­na as well as in coun­tries like the Unit­ed States.

Dot-Bit-enabled web­sites are immune to these prob­lems, because instead of the phone book being a cor­po­ra­tion or gov­ern­ment, the dig­i­tal phone­book is on your own com­put­er.

A blockchain, orig­i­nal­ly block chain, is a con­tin­u­ous­ly grow­ing list of records, called blocks, which are linked and secured using cryp­tog­ra­phy. Each block typ­i­cal­ly con­tains a cryp­to­graph­ic hash of the pre­vi­ous block, a time­stamp and trans­ac­tion data. By design, a blockchain is inher­ent­ly resis­tant to mod­i­fi­ca­tion of the data. It is “an open, dis­trib­uted ledger that can record trans­ac­tions between two par­ties effi­cient­ly and in a ver­i­fi­able and per­ma­nent way”. For use as a dis­trib­uted ledger, a blockchain is typ­i­cal­ly man­aged by a peer-to-peer net­work col­lec­tive­ly adher­ing to a pro­to­col for val­i­dat­ing new blocks. Once record­ed, the data in any giv­en block can­not be altered retroac­tive­ly with­out the alter­ation of all sub­se­quent blocks, which requires col­lu­sion of the net­work major­i­ty.

A smart con­tract is a com­put­er pro­to­col intend­ed to dig­i­tal­ly facil­i­tate, ver­i­fy, or enforce the nego­ti­a­tion or per­for­mance of a con­tract. Smart con­tracts allow the per­for­mance of cred­i­ble trans­ac­tions with­out third par­ties. These trans­ac­tions are track­able and irre­versible. Smart con­tracts were first pro­posed by Nick Szabo, who coined the term, in 1994.

Pro­po­nents of smart con­tracts claim that many kinds of con­trac­tu­al claus­es may be made par­tial­ly or ful­ly self-exe­cut­ing, self-enforc­ing, or both. The aim of smart con­tracts is to pro­vide secu­ri­ty that is supe­ri­or to tra­di­tion­al con­tract law and to reduce oth­er trans­ac­tion costs asso­ci­at­ed with con­tract­ing. Var­i­ous cryp­tocur­ren­cies have imple­ment­ed types of smart con­tracts.

Scytl is a Span­ish provider of elec­tron­ic vot­ing sys­tems and elec­tion tech­nol­o­gy. Found­ed in 2001 in Barcelona, its prod­ucts and ser­vices are used in elec­tions and ref­er­en­da across the world. Scytl was found­ed in 2001, and grew out of a cryp­tog­ra­phy research project at the Autonomous Uni­ver­si­ty of Barcelona. The name is a ref­er­ence to the scy­tale, an ancient cryp­to­graph­ic tool. Scytl’s prod­ucts cov­er the entire elec­tion process, includ­ing elec­tion plan­ning, online vot­er reg­is­tra­tion, poll work­er man­age­ment, elec­tron­ic bal­lot deliv­ery, online vot­ing, results con­sol­i­da­tion and elec­tion night report­ing.

The Inter­net of things (IoT) is the net­work of phys­i­cal devices, vehi­cles, home appli­ances and oth­er items embed­ded with elec­tron­ics, soft­ware, sen­sors, actu­a­tors, and con­nec­tiv­i­ty which enables these objects to con­nect and exchange data. Each thing is unique­ly iden­ti­fi­able through its embed­ded com­put­ing sys­tem but is able to inter-oper­ate with­in the exist­ing Inter­net infra­struc­ture.

Bitcoin is a cryp­tocur­ren­cy and world­wide pay­ment sys­tem. It is the first decen­tral­ized dig­i­tal cur­ren­cy, as the sys­tem works with­out a cen­tral bank or sin­gle admin­is­tra­tor. The net­work is peer-to-peer and trans­ac­tions take place between users direct­ly, with­out an inter­me­di­ary. These trans­ac­tions are ver­i­fied by net­work nodes through the use of cryp­tog­ra­phy and record­ed in a pub­lic dis­trib­uted ledger called a blockchain. Bit­coin was invent­ed by an unknown per­son or group of peo­ple under the name Satoshi Nakamo­to and released as open-source soft­ware in 2009.

Open Gar­den, Inc. is an Amer­i­can com­pa­ny based in San Fran­cis­co, Cal­i­for­nia, that devel­ops a free, closed source mobile appli­ca­tion called FireChat that enables peer-to-peer mobile Inter­net con­nec­tion shar­ing with faster and more effi­cient data trans­mis­sions by auto­mat­i­cal­ly and active­ly choos­ing and switch­ing to the best avail­able net­work with­out requir­ing users to man­u­al­ly sift through avail­able net­works to find the best one avail­able. Open Gar­den sup­ports and pro­motes open wire­less net­works and is a mem­ber of the Open Wire­less Coali­tion, which was found­ed by the Elec­tron­ic Fron­tier Foun­da­tion.

Storj (pro­nounced: stor­age) aims to become a cloud stor­age plat­form that can’t be cen­sored or mon­i­tored, or have down­time. Storj is a plat­form, cryp­tocur­ren­cy, and suite of decen­tral­ized appli­ca­tions that allows users to store data in a secure and decen­tral­ized man­ner. It uses blockchain fea­tures like a trans­ac­tion ledger, public/private key encryp­tion, and cryp­to­graph­ic hash func­tions for secu­ri­ty. Fur­ther­more, it will be way cheap­er (10x-to-100x), faster, and more secure than tra­di­tion­al cloud stor­age ser­vices.

Hyper­space (before Synereo) is a Tel Aviv based com­pa­ny, devel­op­ing blockchain-enabled Atten­tion Econ­o­my solu­tions, that allow direct mon­e­ti­za­tion of orig­i­nal con­tent, post­ed any­where on the net, alter­ing the future of con­tent pub­lish­ing and dis­tri­b­u­tion.

Seast­eading is the con­cept of cre­at­ing per­ma­nent dwellings at sea, called seast­eads, out­side the ter­ri­to­ry claimed by any gov­ern­ment. The term is a com­bi­na­tion of the words sea and home­steading. No one has yet cre­at­ed a struc­ture on the high seas that has been rec­og­nized as a sov­er­eign state.