Slavoj Žižek, born 21 March 1949) is a Sloven­ian con­ti­nen­tal philoso­pher. He is a senior researcher at the Insti­tute for Soci­ol­o­gy and Phi­los­o­phy at the Uni­ver­si­ty of Ljubl­jana, Glob­al Dis­tin­guished Pro­fes­sor of Ger­man at New York Uni­ver­si­ty, and inter­na­tion­al direc­tor of the Birk­beck Insti­tute for the Human­i­ties of the Uni­ver­si­ty of Lon­don. He works in sub­jects includ­ing con­ti­nen­tal phi­los­o­phy, polit­i­cal the­o­ry, cul­tur­al stud­ies, psy­cho­analy­sis, film crit­i­cism, Marx­ism, Hegelian­ism and the­ol­o­gy.

Avram Noam Chom­sky (born Decem­ber 7, 1928) is an Amer­i­can lin­guist, philoso­pher, cog­ni­tive sci­en­tist, his­to­ri­an, social crit­ic, and polit­i­cal activist. Some­times described as “the father of mod­ern lin­guis­tics,” Chom­sky is also a major fig­ure in ana­lyt­ic phi­los­o­phy and one of the founders of the field of cog­ni­tive sci­ence. He holds a joint appoint­ment as Insti­tute Pro­fes­sor Emer­i­tus at the Mass­a­chu­setts Insti­tute of Tech­nol­o­gy (MIT) and lau­re­ate pro­fes­sor at the Uni­ver­si­ty of Ari­zona, and is the author of over 100 books on top­ics such as lin­guis­tics, war, pol­i­tics, and mass media. Ide­o­log­i­cal­ly, he aligns with anar­cho-syn­di­cal­ism and lib­er­tar­i­an social­ism.

Friedrich Hayek CH FBA ( 8 May 1899 – 23 March 1992), born in Aus­tria-Hun­gary as Friedrich August von Hayek and fre­quent­ly referred to as F. A. Hayek, was an Aus­tri­an-British econ­o­mist and philoso­pher best known for his defense of clas­si­cal lib­er­al­ism.

Karl Marx (5 May 1818 – 14 March 1883) was a Ger­man philoso­pher, econ­o­mist, his­to­ri­an, polit­i­cal the­o­rist, soci­ol­o­gist, jour­nal­ist and rev­o­lu­tion­ary social­ist.

Born in Tri­er to a mid­dle-class fam­i­ly, Marx stud­ied law and Hegelian phi­los­o­phy. Due to his polit­i­cal pub­li­ca­tions Marx became state­less and lived in exile in Lon­don, where he con­tin­ued to devel­op his thought in col­lab­o­ra­tion with Ger­man thinker Friedrich Engels and pub­lish his writ­ings. His best-known titles are the 1848 pam­phlet, The Com­mu­nist Man­i­festo, and the three-vol­ume Das Kap­i­tal.

Ted Hon­derich (born 30 Jan­u­ary 1933) is a Cana­di­an-born British philoso­pher, Grote Pro­fes­sor Emer­i­tus of the Phi­los­o­phy of Mind and Log­ic, Uni­ver­si­ty Col­lege Lon­don. His work has been main­ly about five things: con­scious­ness and mind, includ­ing the con­scious­ness – brain rela­tion; right and wrong in the con­tem­po­rary world par­tic­u­lar­ly with democ­ra­cy, ter­ror­ism and war; advo­ca­cy of the Prin­ci­ple of Human­i­ty; deter­min­ism and free­dom; par­tic­u­lar prob­lems in log­i­cal analy­sis and meta­physics; the sup­posed jus­ti­fi­ca­tion of pun­ish­ment by the state; the polit­i­cal tra­di­tion of con­ser­vatism.

Alain Badiou (born 17 Jan­u­ary 1937) is a French philoso­pher. Badiou has writ­ten about the con­cepts of beingtruthevent and the sub­ject in a way that, he claims, is nei­ther post­mod­ern nor sim­ply a rep­e­ti­tion of moder­ni­ty.